Karpenter sets a Kubernetes finalizer on each node it provisions. The finalizer specifies additional actions the Karpenter controller will take in response to a node deletion request. These include:
- Marking the node as unschedulable, so no further pods can be scheduled there.
- Evicting all pods other than daemonsets from the node.
- Terminating the instance from the cloud provider.
- Deleting the node from the Kubernetes cluster.
There are both automated and manual ways of deprovisioning nodes provisioned by Karpenter:
- Provisioner Deletion: Nodes are considered to be “owned” by the Provisioner that launched them. Karpenter will gracefully terminate nodes when a provisioner is deleted.
- Emptiness: Karpenter notes when the last workload (non-daemonset) pod stops running on a node. From that point, Karpenter waits the number of seconds set by
ttlSecondsAfterEmptyin the provisioner, then Karpenter requests to delete the node. This feature can keep costs down by removing nodes that are no longer being used for workloads.
- Expiration: Karpenter requests to delete the node after a set number of seconds, based on the provisioner
ttlSecondsUntilExpiredvalue, from the time the node was provisioned. One use case for node expiry is to handle node upgrades. Old nodes (with a potentially outdated Kubernetes version or operating system) are deleted, and replaced with nodes on the current version (assuming that you requested the latest version, rather than a specific version).
- Consolidation: Karpenter works to actively reduce cluster cost by identifying when nodes can be removed as their workloads will run on other nodes in the cluster and when nodes can be replaced with cheaper variants due to a change in the workloads.
- Interruption: If enabled, Karpenter will watch for upcoming involuntary interruption events that could affect your nodes (health events, spot interruption, etc.) and will cordon, drain, and terminate the node(s) ahead of the event to reduce workload disruption.
- Drift: Karpenter will deprovision nodes that have drifted from their desired specification. Once the node is annotated as drifted, Karpenter will deprovision the nodes and provision replacement nodes with the correct provisioning requirements when needed. Currently, Karpenter will only automatically mark nodes as drifted in the case of a drifted AMI.
Automated deprovisioning is configured through the ProvisionerSpec
.consolidation.enabledfields. If these are not configured, Karpenter will not default values for them and will not terminate nodes for that purpose.
Keep in mind that a small NodeExpiry results in a higher churn in cluster activity. So, for example, if a cluster brings up all nodes at once, all the pods on those nodes would fall into the same batching window on expiration.
Pods without an ownerRef (also called “controllerless” or “naked” pods) will be evicted during voluntary node disruption, such as expiration or consolidation. A pod with the annotation
karpenter.sh/do-not-evict: truewill cause its node to be opted out from voluntary node disruption workflows.
Using preferred anti-affinity and topology spreads can reduce the effectiveness of consolidation. At node launch, Karpenter attempts to satisfy affinity and topology spread preferences. In order to reduce node churn, consolidation must also attempt to satisfy these constraints to avoid immediately consolidating nodes after they launch. This means that consolidation may not deprovision nodes in order to avoid violating preferences, even if kube-scheduler can fit the host pods elsewhere. Karpenter reports these pods via logging to bring awareness to the possible issues they can cause (e.g.
pod default/inflate-anti-self-55894c5d8b-522jd has a preferred Anti-Affinity which can prevent consolidation).
Node Deletion: You could use
kubectlto manually remove a single Karpenter node:
# Delete a specific node kubectl delete node $NODE_NAME # Delete all nodes owned any provisioner kubectl delete nodes -l karpenter.sh/provisioner-name # Delete all nodes owned by a specific provisioner kubectl delete nodes -l karpenter.sh/provisioner-name=$PROVISIONER_NAME
Whether through node expiry or manual deletion, Karpenter seeks to follow graceful termination procedures as described in Kubernetes Graceful node shutdown documentation. If the Karpenter controller is removed or fails, the finalizers on the nodes are orphaned and will require manual removal.
NoteBy adding the finalizer, Karpenter improves the default Kubernetes process of node deletion. When you run
kubectl delete nodeon a node without a finalizer, the node is deleted without triggering the finalization logic. The instance will continue running in EC2, even though there is no longer a node object for it. The kubelet isn’t watching for its own existence, so if a node is deleted the kubelet doesn’t terminate itself. All the pod objects get deleted by a garbage collection process later, because the pods’ node is gone.
Karpenter has two mechanisms for cluster consolidation:
- Deletion - A node is eligible for deletion if all of its pods can run on free capacity of other nodes in the cluster.
- Replace - A node can be replaced if all of its pods can run on a combination of free capacity of other nodes in the cluster and a single cheaper replacement node.
Consolidation has three mechanisms that are performed in order to attempt to identify a consolidation action:
- Empty Node Consolidation - Delete any entirely empty nodes in parallel
- Multi-Node Consolidation - Try to delete two or more nodes in parallel, possibly launching a single replacement that is cheaper than the price of all nodes being removed
- Single-Node Consolidation - Try to delete any single node, possibly launching a single replacement that is cheaper than the price of that node
It’s impractical to examine all possible consolidation options for multi-node consolidation, so Karpenter uses a heuristic to identify a likely set of nodes that can be consolidated. For single-node consolidation we consider each node in the cluster individually.
When there are multiple nodes that could be potentially deleted or replaced, Karpenter choose to consolidate the node that overall disrupts your workloads the least by preferring to terminate:
- nodes running fewer pods
- nodes that will expire soon
- nodes with lower priority pods
NoteFor spot nodes, Karpenter only uses the deletion consolidation mechanism. It will not replace a spot node with a cheaper spot node. Spot instance types are selected with the
price-capacity-optimizedstrategy and often the cheapest spot instance type is not launched due to the likelihood of interruption. Consolidation would then replace the spot instance with a cheaper instance negating the
price-capacity-optimizedstrategy entirely and increasing interruption rate.
If consolidation is enabled, Karpenter periodically reports events against nodes that indicate why the node can’t be consolidated. These events can be used to investigate nodes that you expect to have been consolidated, but still remain in your cluster.
Events: Type Reason Age From Message ---- ------ ---- ---- ------- Normal Unconsolidatable 66s karpenter pdb default/inflate-pdb prevents pod evictions Normal Unconsolidatable 33s (x3 over 30m) karpenter can't replace with a cheaper node
If interruption-handling is enabled, Karpenter will watch for upcoming involuntary interruption events that would cause disruption to your workloads. These interruption events include:
- Spot Interruption Warnings
- Scheduled Change Health Events (Maintenance Events)
- Instance Terminating Events
- Instance Stopping Events
When Karpenter detects one of these events will occur to your nodes, it automatically cordons, drains, and terminates the node(s) ahead of the interruption event to give the maximum amount of time for workload cleanup prior to compute disruption. This enables scenarios where the
terminationGracePeriod for your workloads may be long or cleanup for your workloads is critical, and you want enough time to be able to gracefully clean-up your pods.
NoteKarpenter publishes Kubernetes events to the node for all events listed above in addition to Spot Rebalance Recommendations. Karpenter does not currently support cordon, drain, and terminate logic for Spot Rebalance Recommendations.
Karpenter enables this feature by watching an SQS queue which receives critical events from AWS services which may affect your nodes. Karpenter requires that an SQS queue be provisioned and EventBridge rules and targets be added that forward interruption events from AWS services to the SQS queue. Karpenter provides details for provisioning this infrastructure in the Cloudformation template in the Getting Started Guide.
To enable the interruption handling feature flag, configure the
karpenter-global-settings ConfigMap with the following value mapped to the name of the interruption queue that handles interruption events.
apiVersion: v1 kind: ConfigMap metadata: name: karpenter-global-settings namespace: karpenter data: ... aws.interruptionQueueName: karpenter-cluster ...
If drift is enabled, Karpenter will deprovision nodes that have been marked as drifted with the annotation
karpenter.sh/voluntary-disruption: "drifted". Karpenter will automatically cordon, drain, and terminate nodes, while respecting any PDBs or
do-not-evict pods that are configured. Karpenter will automatically mark nodes as drifted if the AMI that is used on the instance does not match the AMI set by the AWSNodeTemplate. Check the AWSNodeTemplate Docs settings for more.
If users annotate their own nodes with
karpenter.sh/voluntary-disruption: "drifted", Karpenter will respect the annotation and deprovision the nodes.
NoteKarpenter will only automatically mark nodes as drifted in the case of a drifted AMI. More methods of drift will be implemented in the future. Please cut a feature request if you’d like to see more methods implemented.
To enable the drift feature flag, refer to the Settings Feature Gates.
Pods can be opted out of eviction by setting the annotation
karpenter.sh/do-not-evict on the pod. This is useful for pods that you want to run from start to finish without interruption.
Examples might include a real-time, interactive game that you don’t want to interrupt or a long batch job (such as you might have with machine learning) that would need to start over if it were interrupted.
apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: Deployment spec: template: metadata: labels: karpenter.sh/do-not-evict: ""
By opting pods out of eviction, you are telling Karpenter that it should not voluntarily remove nodes containing this pod.
Examples of voluntary node removal that will be prevented by this annotation include:
NoteVoluntary node removal does not include Interruption, which is considered an involuntary event, since node removal cannot be delayed.
This annotation will have no effect for static pods, pods that tolerate
NoSchedule, or pods terminating past their graceful termination period.
Nodes can be opted out of consolidation deprovisioning by setting the annotation
karpenter.sh/do-not-consolidate on the node.
apiVersion: karpenter.sh/v1alpha5 kind: Node metadata: annotations: karpenter.sh/do-not-consolidate: ""
Example: Disable Consolidation on Provisioner
.spec.annotations allow you to set annotations that will be applied to all nodes launched by this provisioner. By setting the annotation
karpenter.sh/do-not-consolidate on the provisioner, you will selectively prevent all nodes launched by this Provisioner from being considered in consolidation calculations.
apiVersion: karpenter.sh/v1alpha5 kind: Provisioner metadata: name: default spec: annotations: # will be applied to all nodes karpenter.sh/do-not-consolidate: "true"
There are a few cases where requesting to deprovision a Karpenter node will fail. These include Pod Disruption Budgets and pods that have the
do-not-evict annotation set.
Karpenter respects Pod Disruption Budgets (PDBs) by using a backoff retry eviction strategy. Pods will never be forcibly deleted, so pods that fail to shut down will prevent a node from deprovisioning. Kubernetes PDBs let you specify how much of a Deployment, ReplicationController, ReplicaSet, or StatefulSet must be protected from disruptions when pod eviction requests are made.
PDBs can be used to strike a balance by protecting the application’s availability while still allowing a cluster administrator to manage the cluster.
Here is an example where the pods matching the label
myapp will block node termination if evicting the pod would reduce the number of available pods below 4.
apiVersion: policy/v1 kind: PodDisruptionBudget metadata: name: myapp-pdb spec: minAvailable: 4 selector: matchLabels: app: myapp
Pod set to
If a pod exists with the annotation
karpenter.sh/do-not-evict: true on a node, and a request is made to delete the node, Karpenter will not drain any pods from that node or otherwise try to delete the node. Nodes that have pods with a
do-not-evict annotation are not considered for consolidation, though their unused capacity is considered for the purposes of running pods from other nodes which can be consolidated.
If you want to terminate a node with a
do-not-evict pod, you can simply remove the annotation and the deprovisioning process will continue.
Scheduling Constraints (Consolidation Only)
Consolidation will be unable to consolidate a node if, as a result of its scheduling simulation, it determines that the pods on a node cannot run on other nodes due to inter-pod affinity/anti-affinity, topology spread constraints, or some other scheduling restriction that couldn’t be fulfilled.