How does a provisioner decide to manage a particular node?

See Configuring provisioners for information on how Karpenter provisions and manages nodes.

What cloud providers are supported?

AWS is the first cloud provider supported by Karpenter, although it is designed to be used with other cloud providers as well. See Cloud provider for details.

Can I write my own cloud provider for Karpenter?

Yes, but there is no documentation yet for it. Start with Karpenter’s GitHub cloudprovider documentation to see how the AWS provider is built, but there are other sections of the code that will require changes too.

What operating system nodes does Karpenter deploy?

By default, Karpenter uses Amazon Linux 2 images.

Can I provide my own custom operating system images?

Karpenter allows you to create your own AWS AMIs using custom launch templates. See Launch Templates and Custom Images for details.

Can Karpenter deal with workloads for mixed architecture cluster (arm vs. amd)?

Yes. Build and prepare custom arm images as described in Launch Templates and Custom Images. Specify the desired architecture when you deploy workloads.

What RBAC access is required?

All of the required RBAC rules can be found in the helm chart template. See clusterrolebinding.yaml, clusterrole.yaml, rolebinding.yaml, and role.yaml files for details.

Can I run Karpenter outside of a Kubernetes cluster?

Yes, as long as the controller has network and IAM/RBAC access to the Kubernetes API and your provider API.


Which versions of Kubernetes does Karpenter support?

Karpenter is tested with Kubernetes v1.19 and later.

What Kubernetes distributions are supported?

Karpenter documents integration with a fresh install of the latest AWS Elastic Kubernetes Service (EKS). Existing EKS distributions can be used, but this use case has not yet been documented. Other Kubernetes distributions (KOPs, etc.) can be used, but setting up cloud provider permissions for those distributions has not been documented.

How does Karpenter interact with AWS node group features?

Provisioners are designed to work alongside static capacity management solutions like EKS Managed Node Groups and EC2 Auto Scaling Groups. You can manage all capacity using provisioners, use a mixed model with dynamic and statically managed capacity, or use a fully static approach. We expect most users will use a mixed approach in the near term and provisioner-managed in the long term.

How does Karpenter interact with Kubernetes features?

  • Kubernetes Cluster Autoscaler: Karpenter can work alongside cluster autoscaler. See Kubernetes cluster autoscaler for details.
  • Kubernetes Scheduler: Karpenter focuses on scheduling pods that the Kubernetes scheduler has marked as unschedulable. See Scheduling for details on how Karpenter interacts with the Kubernetes scheduler.


What features does the Karpenter provisioner support?

See Provisioner API for provisioner examples and descriptions of features.

Can I create multiple (team-based) provisioners on a cluster?

Yes, provisioners can identify multiple teams based on labels. See Provisioner API for details.

If multiple provisioners are defined, which will my pod use?

By default, pods will use the rules defined by a provisioner named default. This is analogous to the default scheduler. To select an alternative provisioner, use the node selector karpenter.sh/provisioner-name: alternative-provisioner. You must either define a default provisioner or explicitly specify karpenter.sh/provisioner-name node selector.

Can I set total limits of CPU and memory for a provisioner?

Yes, the setting is provider-specific. See examples in Accelerators, GPU Karpenter documentation.

Can I mix spot and on-demand EC2 run types?

Yes, see Example Provisioner Resource for an example.

Can I restrict EC2 instance types?

  • Attribute-based requests are currently not possible.
  • You can select instances with special hardware, such as gpu.

How does Karpenter dynamically select instance types?

Karpenter batches pending pods and then binpacks them based on CPU, memory, and GPUs required, taking into account node overhead, VPC CNI resources required, and daemon sets that will be packed when bringing up a new node. By default Karpenter uses all available instance types, but it can be constrained in the provisioner spec with the instance-type well-known label in the requirements section. After the pods are binpacked on the most efficient instance type (i.e. the smallest instance type that can fit the pod batch), Karpenter takes 19 other instance types that are larger than the most efficient packing, and passes all 20 instance type options to an API called Amazon EC2 Fleet. The EC2 fleet API attempts to provision the instance type based on a user-defined allocation strategy. If you are using the on-demand capacity type, then Karpenter uses the lowest-price allocation strategy. So fleet will provision the lowest price instance type it can get from the 20 Karpenter passed it. If the instance type is unavailable for some reason, then fleet will move on to the next cheapest instance type. If you are using the spot capacity type, Karpenter uses the capacity-optimized-prioritized allocation strategy which tells fleet to find the instance type that EC2 has the most capacity of which will decrease the probability of a spot interruption happening in the near term. See Choose the appropriate allocation strategy for information on fleet optimization.

What if there is no Spot capacity? Will Karpenter use On-Demand?

The best defense against running out of Spot capacity is to allow Karpenter to provision as many different instance types as possible. Even instance types that have higher specs, e.g. vCPU, memory, etc., than what you need can still be cheaper in the Spot market than using On-Demand instances. When Spot capacity is constrained, On-Demand capacity can also be constrained since Spot is fundamentally spare On-Demand capacity. Allowing Karpenter to provision nodes from a large, diverse set of instance types will help you to stay on Spot longer and lower your costs due to Spot’s discounted pricing. Moreover, if Spot capacity becomes constrained, this diversity will also increase the chances that you’ll be able to continue to launch On-Demand capacity for your workloads.

If your Karpenter Provisioner specifies flexibility to both Spot and On-Demand capacity, Karpenter will attempt to provision On-Demand capacity if there is no Spot capacity available. However, it’s strongly recommended that you specify at least 20 instance types in your Provisioner (or none and allow Karpenter to pick the best instance types) as our research indicates that this additional diversity increases the chances that your workloads will not need to launch On-Demand capacity at all. Today, Karpenter will warn you if the number of instances in your Provisioner isn’t sufficiently diverse.

Technically, Karpenter has a concept of an “offering” for each instance type, which is a combination of zone and capacity type (equivalent in the AWS cloud provider to an EC2 purchase option – Spot or On-Demand). Whenever the Fleet API returns an insufficient capacity error for Spot instances, those particular offerings are temporarily removed from consideration (across the entire provisioner) so that Karpenter can make forward progress with different options.


How can someone deploying pods take advantage of Karpenter?

See Application developer for descriptions of how Karpenter matches nodes with pod requests.

How do I use Karpenter with the AWS load balancer controller?

  • Set the ALB target type to IP mode for the pods. Use IP targeting if you want the pods to receive equal weight. Instance balancing could greatly skew the traffic being sent to a node without also managing host spread of the workload.
  • Set readiness gate on the namespace. The default is round robin at the node level. For Karpenter, not all nodes are equal. For example, each node will have different performance characteristics and a different number of pods running on it. A t3.small with three instances should not receive the same amount of traffic as a m5.4xlarge with dozens of pods. If you don’t specify a spread at the workload level, or limit what instances should be picked, you could get the same amount of traffic sent to the t3 and m5.

Can I use Karpenter with EBS disks per availability zone?

Yes. See Persistent Volume Topology for details.

Can I set --max-pods on my nodes?

Not yet.


How does Karpenter deprovision nodes?

See Deprovisioning nodes for information on how Karpenter deprovisions nodes.


How do I upgrade Karpenter?

Karpenter is a controller that runs in your cluster, but it is not tied to a specific Kubernetes version, as the Cluster Autoscaler is. Use your existing upgrade mechanisms to upgrade your core add-ons in Kubernetes and keep Karpenter up to date on bug fixes and new features.

Last modified September 6, 2022 : Docs: Update FAQs (#2469) (636ba84f)